In Liberty by John Stuart Mill

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With the liberty of thought and discussion

In the second chapter, J. S. Mill attempts to prove his claim from the first chapter that opinions ought never to be suppressed. Looking to the consequences of suppressing opinions, he concludes that opinions ought never to be suppressed, stating, Such prejudice, or oversight, when it [i.e. false belief] occurs, is altogether an evil; but it is one from which we cannot hope to be always exempt, and must be regarded as the price pa

First, in the event any thoughts and opinions is compelled to silence, that judgment may, intended for aught we are able to certainly understand, be accurate. To deny this is to assume our own infallibility. Subsequently, though the quietened opinion end up being an error, it may well, and very typically does, include a portion of fact; and since the general or prevailing opinion on any subject matter is almost never or under no circumstances the whole real truth, it is only by collision of adverse opinions that the rest of the real truth has any kind of chance of staying supplied. Third, even if the received opinion always be not only true, but the complete truth; unless it is experienced to be, and actually is, strongly and seriously contested, it will eventually, by most of those who get it, always be held in the way of a prejudice, with little comprehension or perhaps feeling of it is rational argument. And not only this, but , fourthly, the meaning in the doctrine alone will be at risk to being misplaced, or enfeebled, and deprived of their vital effect on the character and conduct: the dogma being a mere formal profession, inefficacious for good, nevertheless cumbering the floor, and stopping the growth of any genuine and honest conviction, by reason or personal experience. inches

Mill spends a large portion of the chapter discussing implications of and objections to the policy of never suppressing opinions. In doing so, Mill explains his opinion of Christian ethics, arguing that, while they are praiseworthy, they are incomplete on their own. Therefore, Mill concludes that suppression of opinion based on belief in infallible doctrine is dangerous. Among the other objections Mill answers is the objection that the truth will necessarily survive persecution and that society need only teach the grounds for truth, not the objections to it. Near the end of Chapter 2, Mill states that unmeasured vituperation, enforced on the s

Structure

Relating to Mill’s AutobiographyOn Freedomwas first conceived being a short composition in 1854. As the ideas created, the composition was expanded, rewritten and sedulously remedied by Generator and his partner, Harriet Taylor swift. Mill, following suffering a mental malfunction and eventually appointment and consequently marrying Harriet, changed most of his morals on ethical life and women’s legal rights. Mill declares thatOn Freedomwas more immediately and practically our joint production than anything else which bears my name. inches

The final draft was almost complete the moment his partner died instantly in 1858. Mill shows that he made simply no alterations towards the text at this point and that among his initial acts after her fatality was to distribute it also to consecrate it to her memory. The composition of this function was likewise indebted to the work of the German thinker Wilhelm vonseiten Humboldt, specifically his articleAround the Limits of State Action. Finally published in 1858On Libertywas one of Mill’s two most influential catalogs (the various other beingUtilitarianism).

On individuality as one of the elements of well-being

In the third chapter, L. S. Mill points out the inherent worth of indiv > This individual argues which a society ought to attempt to enhance indiv > Being mindful of this, Mill thinks that conformity is dangerous. He claims that this individual fears that Western civilization approaches this well-intentioned conformity to praiseworthy maxims seen as a the Oriental civilization. Consequently , Mill proves that activities in themselves will not matter. Alternatively, the person in back of the actions and the actions together are valuable. He produces:

It is actually of importance, not simply what males do, yet also what manner of males they are which experts claim it. Among the list of works of man, which in turn human life is rightly employed in perfecting and beautifying, the first in importance surely is gentleman himself. Presuming it had been possible to get residences built, corn grown, battles fought, triggers tried, and in many cases churches constructed and prayers sa

Introduction

John Stuart Mill opens his essay by discussing the historical struggle between authority and liberty, describing the tyranny of government, which, in his view, needs to be controlled by the liberty of the citizens. He div > Because society wasits early stagesto such turbulent conditions (i.e. small population and constant war), it was forced to accept rule by a master. However, as mankind progressed, it became conceivable for the people to rule themselves. Mill admits that this new form of society seemed immune to tyranny because there was no fear of tyrannizing over self. Despite the high hopes of the Enlightenment, Mill argues that the democratic > Second, there is a risk of a tyranny of the majority in which the many oppress the few who, according to democratic

In Mill’s view, tyranny of the majority is worse than tyranny of government because it is not limited to a political function. Where one can be protected from a tyrant, it is much harder to be protected against the tyranny of the prevailing opinion and feeling. The prevailing opinions within society will be the basis of all rules of conduct within society; thus there can be no safeguard in law against the tyranny of the majority. Mill’s proof goes as follows: the majority opinion may not be the correct opinion. The only justification for a person’s preference for a particular moral belief is that it is that person’s preference. On a particular issue, people will align themselves either for or against that issue; the s > In summary to this research of past governments, Mill proposes an individual standard that a person’s liberty may be limited:

That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant . Over himself, over his body and mind, the indiv

Mill explains that this common is entirely based on power. Consequently , when it is not really useful, it might be ignored. For instance , according to Mill, children and barbarian nations happen to be benefited by simply limited freedom. Just despots, including Charlemagne and Akbar the truly amazing, were traditionally beneficial to people not yet in shape to guideline themselves.

J. S. Mill proves the Intro by discussing what he claimed had been the three simple liberties in order of importance:

  1. The freedom of thought and feelings. This includes the freedom to act about such thought, i. elizabeth. freedom of speech
  2. The freedom to pursue preferences (provided they are doing no problems for others), regardless if they are regarded immoral
  3. The freedom to unite as long as the involved members will be of age, the involved users are not required, and no damage is done to others

While Mill admits that these freedoms couldcertain situationspushed as

Education

Mill believes that government run education is an evil because it would destroy diversity of opinion for all people to be taught the curriculum developed by a few. The less evil version of state run schooling, according to Mill, is that which competes against other privately run schools. In contrast, Mill believes that governments ought to require and fund private education. He states that they should enforce mandatory education through minor fines and annual standardised testing that tested only uncontroversial fact. He goes on to emphasise the importance of a diverse education that teaches opposing views (e.g. Kant and Locke). He concludes by stating that it is legitimate for states to forb

Economy

Mill first applies these guidelines to the economy. He concludes that totally free markets will be preferable to these controlled by simply governments. Whilst it may seem, mainly because trade is known as a social act, the fact that government really need intervene in the economy, Mill states that financial systems function best when remaining to their very own devices. Therefore , federal government intervention, although theoretically permissible, would be detrimental. Afterwards, he disorders government-run financial systems as despotic. This individual believes that if the govt ran our economy, then all people would desire to be part of a bureaucracy that had no incentive to help the passions of any but itself.

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Contradiction to utilitarianism

Mill makes it clear throughout On Liberty that he regard[s] utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions, a standard he inherited from his father, a follower of Jeremy Bentham. Though J. S. Mill claims that all of his principles on liberty appeal to the ultimate authority of utilitarianism, according to Nigel Warburton, much of the essay can seem divorced from his supposed final court of appeals. Mill seems to

inches If all mankind without one, had been of one judgment, and only a single person were of contrary thoughts and opinions, mankind can be no more validated in silencing that one person, than this individual, if he previously the power, will be justified in silencing human beings. inches

This assert seems to not in favor of the principle of utilitarianism, that it is permissible that one ought to be harmed in order that the majority can benefit.

Warburton states that Mill is too upbeat about the end result of free conversation. Warburton shows that there are circumstances in which it might cause even more happiness to suppress real truth than to allow it. For instance , if a man of science discovered a comet planning to kill the planet in a matter of several weeks, it may trigger more delight to suppress the truth than to allow world to discover the impending danger.

  1. Rights are extra principles towards the Greatest Delight Principle
  2. Privileges are extraordinaire goods, justifying their particular enforcement
  3. Freedom is a good. Thus, those who reduce it will be worthy of punishment. Rights cope with the value of punishing/protecting others’ disturbance with freedom, not you see, the protection of liberty

Summary

(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

John Stuart Mill, the English utilitarian, concerns himself in this work with the problem of defining the limits of the power of the state to interfere with personal liberty. The result is one of the most important statements in the history of Western democracy. The essay is distinguished by its clarity and the orderly arrangement of its persuasive argument. The work reveals Mill’s interest in the happiness and rights of all people and his serious concern that happiness may be threatened by governmental power unwisely used.

Mill states concisely that the purpose of his essay is to assert one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of compulsion and control, whether the means used be physical force in the form of legal penalties, or the moral coercion of public opinion. That principle is, that the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.

Another statement of the author’s intention is found in the last chapter, Applications, in which Mill states that two maxims together form the entire doctrine of the essay. The first maxim is that the individual is not accountable to society for his actions, in so far as these concern the interests of no person but himself, and the second is that for such actions as are prejudicial to the interests of others, the individual is accountable, and may be subjected either to social or to legal punishment, if society is of the opinion that the one or the other is requisite for its protection.

It would be an error of interpretation of Mill’s intention to suppose that he is explicitly objecting to all efforts of government to improve the condition of its citizens. What Mill objects to is the restriction of human liberty for the sake of human welfare; he has nothing against welfare itself. On the contrary, as a utilitarian, he believes that a right act is one that aims at the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons; and it is precisely because the restriction of human liberty is so destructive to human happiness that he makes a plea for a judicious use of restrictive power, justifying it only when it is used to prevent harm, or unhappiness of whatever sort, to others than the person being restricted.

Restricting personal liberty for one’s own good, for one’s happiness, is not morally justifiable. Mill permits, even encourages, remonstrating and reasoning with a person who is determined to act against his or her own best interests, but he does not approve of using force to keep that person from such actions.

After reviewing some of the acts a person may rightfully be compelled to doas to give evidence in court, to bear a fair share of the common defense, and to defend the helplessasserts that society has no right to interfere when a person’s acts concern, for the most part, only that person. This statement means that a person must be free in conscience, thought, and feeling, and.

(The entire section is 1,336 words.)

On the limits to the authority of society over the individual

In the fourth chapter, J. S. Mill explains a system in which a person can discern what aspects of life should be governed by the indiv > Generally, he holds that a person should be left as free to pursue his own interests as long as this does not harm the interests of others. In such a situation, society has jurisdiction over [the person’s conduct]. He rejects the > This principle leads him to conclude that a person may, without fear of just punishment, do harm to himself through vice. Governments, he claims, should only punish a person for neglecting to fulfill a duty to others (or causing harm to others), not the vice that brought about the neglect.

J. S. Mill spends the rest of the chapter responding to objections to his maxim. He notes the objection that he contradicts himself in granting societal interference with youth because they are irrational but denying societal interference with certain adults though they act irrationally. Mill first responds by restating the claim that society ought to punish the harmful consequences of the irrational conduct, but not the irrational conduct itself which is a personal matter. Furthermore, he notes the societal obligation is not to ensure that each indiv > Rather, he claims that, simply by educating junior, society gets the opportunity and duty to ensure a technology, as a whole, is usually moral.

Where a lot of may thing that there is approval for certain spiritual prohibitions in a society dominated by that religion, this individual argues that members of the majority ought make rules that they might accept should they have been the minority. He states, unless we are willing to undertake the logic of persecutors, and declare we may persecute others since we are correct, and that they should not persecute us because they are wrong, we must watch out for admitting a principle that we should latest as a major injustice the applying to themselves. In saying this, he references a youthful claim that probe and faith cannot be cared for in the same light as mathematics since morals and religion happen to be vastly more complicated. Just as with living in a society which will contains immoral people, Generator points out that agents who have find another’s conduct depraved do not have to socialize with the various other, merely avoid impeding all their personal decisions. Although Mill generally opposes the religiously enthusiastic societal disturbance, he confesses that it is conceivably permissible pertaining to religiously motivated laws to prohibit the application of what not any religion obligates. For example , a Muslim state can feasibly stop pork. However , Mill continue to prefers a plan of world minding a unique business.

Religious critique

Nigel Warburton declares that nevertheless Mill motivates religious tolerance, because he would not speak in the perspective of your specific religion, some declare that he will not account for what certain religious beliefs would entail when governing a society. Several religions assume that they have a Our god given responsibility to enforce religious rules. For them, it seems like impossible for religious beliefs to be incorrect, i. electronic. the beliefs are infallible. Therefore , relating to Warburton, Mill’s basic principle of total freedom of speech might not exactly apply.



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