C: Sumita arora alternatives for SQL chapter Analysis Paper

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Fixed Exercise by Sumita Arora

STRUCTURED QUESTION LANGUAGE

TYPE A: VERY SHORT GET SUGGESTIONS

What is SQL? What are the different subdivisions of SQL?

SQL means Methodized Query Terminology. It is the set of commands that is certainly recognized by every RDBMS. Info Definition Dialect (DDL)

Info Manipulation Vocabulary (DML)

Info Control Terminology (DCL)

Give examples of several DDL instructions and some DML commands.

DDL Commands

1) CREATE

2) ALTER

3) DROP

DML Commands

1) INSERT INTO

2) ERASE

3) REVISE

What is the difference between steering column constraint and table constraint? Name a lot of database ethics constrains.

The between line constraint and table constraint is that steering column constraint is applicable only to specific columns, while table constraints apply to categories of one or more columns. Following are definitely the few of databases integrity constrains:

 Unique constraint

 Primary Crucial constraint

 Default restriction

 Verify constraint

1 . How do next constraint operate?

(i) Exceptional

(ii) Main Key

(iii) Default

(iv) Check

Exclusive: This constraint ensures that simply no two rows have the same benefit in the specified columns. Pertaining to eg, CREATE TABLE staff (ecode integer NOT NULL UNIQUE, ename char(20), Sexual char(2) ); Primary Important: Primary crucial does not allow NULL value and Replicate data in the column which is declared while Primary Important.

For eg, CREATE DESK employee (ecode integer NOT REALLY NULL PRINCIPAL KEY, ename char(20), Sexchar(2) ); Default: When a user does not enter a value pertaining to the steering column, automatically the defined arrears value is definitely inserted in field. A column can easily have just one default benefit.

For for example, CREATE DESK employee (ecode integer CERTAINLY NOT NULL MAJOR KEY, ename char(20), Sexchar(2), Grade char(2) DEFAULT = ‘E1' );

Check: This kind of constraint limits values that may inserted right into a column of table. For eg, GENERATE TABLE worker (ecode integer NOT NULL PRIMARY ESSENTIAL, ename char(20), Sex char(2), Grade char(2) DEFAULT = ‘E1', Low decimal EXAMINE (gross > 2000 );

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Assess DISTINCT and keywords when ever used with SELECT command. SPECIFIC keyword is employed to restrict the duplicate rows from the results of a SELECT statement. EVERY keyword retains the replicate rows, by default ALL keyword is use by CHOOSE statement. Precisely what is wrong while using following statement? Write the remedied form of this query: CHOOSE * COMING FROM employee

WHEREVER grade sama dengan NULL;

CBSE CS D IP

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IS NULL should be employed in place of sama dengan NULL. Following is the appropriate statement: CHOOSE * VIA employee

IN WHICH grade IS DEFINITELY NULL;

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What is the difference among where and having clause?

WHERE CLAUSE

HAVING OFFER

Places conditions on person rows.

Areas conditions about groups.

Cannot include aggregate function.

Consist of aggregate function.

For eg. SELECT 2. FROM scholar

For eg. SELECT AVG(marks) FROM college student

WHERE Rno > =10;

GROUP BY grade HAVING grade = ‘B1';

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What is big difference between doing work of the subsequent functions? Count(*), Count (), Count (DISTINCT), Count (ALL)

Count(*): - The COUNT(*) function returns the number of information in a table: SELECT COUNT(*) FROM student;

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Count number (): -- The COUNT() function earnings the number of principles (NULL values will not be counted) of the specific column:

CHOOSE COUNT(name) VIA student;

Depend (DISTINCT): - The COUNT(DISTINCT column_name) function returns the number of distinct principles of the particular column:

CHOOSE COUNT(DISTINCT city) FROM college student;

Count (ALL): - to count the quantity of non-null principles in steering column dept, we. e. keeping track of repetitions too. SELECT COUNT(ALL) FROM scholar;

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1 . Precisely what is the difference between SELECT IN TO and MAKE VIEW commands? SELECT IN command

CREATE VIEW command word

SELECT INTO creates a new table by

The GENERATE VIEW creates view via a table.

extracting data from other stand.

Resides literally in the database.

Not a section of the database's physical representation....



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